The collaborative development of concepts, products and services together with customers, business partners, domain experts, and other stakeholders.

Co-creation as we understand it is a form of open innovation where ideas are openly shared and developed in a group of internal and external stakeholders. A basic requirement for co-creation is therefore trust and a willingness to share and improve knowledge in a group beyond one’s own division, organization, or even industry.

The term also has a different meaning in S-D Logic. Following this theory, the above explanations refer to ‘co-production’, whereas co-creation refers to “objects that are used with other objects or other people in context” and that value creation accordingly happens through resource integration to achieve outcomes, in a context designed by the customer.


Chesbrough, H. W., & W, H. (2006). Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape. Harvard Business Press.
Chesbrough, H. W. (2011). Open Services Innovation: Rethinking Your Business to Grow and Compete in a New Era (1 edition). Jossey-Bass.
Chesbrough, H. W. (2008). Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press, USA.