A kind of teamwork in which a group of people works synchronously towards a shared goal.

Knowledge and work packages are not as advanced in dispersed sub-teams as they are in ‘cooperation’, but they are co-created with ‘everyone in the room’ (can be a virtual one too). Examples for collaboration would be: a brainstorming session with the whole team or a group synthesis of design research and interview data after interview teams come back from the field .


Plattner, H., Meinel, C., & Leifer, L. (Eds.). (2018). Design Thinking Research: Making Distinctions: Collaboration versus Cooperation. Springer International Publishing.